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Guru Granth Sahib

The Guru Granth Sahib or Adi Granth, is the religious text of Sikhism.[1] It is a voluminous text of 1430 Angs, compiled and composed during the period of Sikh gurus, from 1469 to 1708. It is a collection of hymns (shabda) or baani describing the qualities of God and why one should meditate on God's name. Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the tenth guru, affirmed the sacred text Adi Granth as his successor, elevating it to Guru Granth Sahib. The text remains the holy scripture of the Sikhs, regarded as the teachings of the Ten Gurus.[4] The role of Adi Granth, as a source or guide of prayer, is pivotal in worship in Sikhism.

The Adi Granth was first compiled by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563–1606), from hymns of the first five Sikh gurus and other great saints, or bhagats, including those of the Hindu and Muslim faith. After the demise of the tenth Sikh guru many edited copies were prepared for distribution by Baba Deep Singh.

It is written in the Gurmukhī script, in melange of various dialects – including Lehndi Punjabi, Braj Bhasha, Khariboli, Sanskrit and Persian – often coalesced under the generic title of Sant Bhasha.

During the Guruship of Guru Nanak, collections of his hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for them to use in morning and evening prayers.[7] His successor, Guru Angad, began the tradition of collecting his predecessors' sacred writings which was continued by the third and fourth gurus.

When the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan, was collecting the writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the Guruship were releasing forged anthologies of the previous gurus' writings and including their own writings alongside them.[8] In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan began compiling a sacred book for the Sikh community. He finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, and convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three Gurus.[8] In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any previously unknown writings. He also invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion.[8] Guru Arjan selected hymns for inclusion into the book and Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe.

While the manuscript was being put together, Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the manuscript contained passages vilifying Islam so while traveling north he stopped enroute and asked to inspect it.[9] Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of manuscript so far, and after choosing three random passages to be read, determined the report to be false.[9] He also granted a request from Guru Arjan to remit the annual tax revenue of the district because of the failure of the monsoon.[9]

In 1604, Guru Arjan's manuscript was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib with Bhai Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy book needed to be made for them.[9] However, in this very first transcription a number of minor changes were made by the copyists.[9]

The sixth, seventh, and eighth Gurus did not write religious verses, however the ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur did and the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh did as well.[9]

In 1704, at Damdama Sahib during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurengzeb the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to the Guru Granth Sahib to create a definitive version.[9] During these months of "intense literary activity" they used the original volume prepared by Guru Arjan by borrowing it from the descendants of Dhirmal, the elder brother of Guru Har Rai and inserted Guru Tegh Bahadur's verses in the appropriate places.[9] The religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in the Guru Granth Sahib, but some of his religious verses are included in the daily prayers of Sikhs.[9] During this period, Bhai Mani Singh also collected Guru Gobind Singh's writings as well as his court poets and included them in a non-religious volume known as the Dasam Granth.[10]

This final compilation of the Guru Granth Sahib had many copies made, however, the original was lost in the Sikh holocaust of 1762.[9] The edition used in Sikh Gurdwaras today is based on the copies produced at Damdama Sahib by Bhai Mani Singh.[9]

Sikhs consider the Granth to be a spiritual guide for mankind, and it plays a central role in "guiding" the Sikhs' way of life. Its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: that the text is divine revelation,[11] and that all answers regarding religion and morality can be discovered within it. Its hymns and teachings are called Gurbani or "Word of the guru" and sometimes Guru ki bani or "Word of God". Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word is written by the past Gurus.[12] The numerous holy men other than the Sikh Gurus whose writing were included in the Adi Granth are collectively referred to as Bhagats, "devotees", and their writings are referred to as Bhagat bani, "Word of Devotees". These saints belonged to different social and religious backgrounds, including Hindus and Muslims, cobblers and untouchables. Guru Granth Sahib is said to be the sole and final successor of the line of gurus

About Singh Sabha Gurudwara

Registration of Singh Sabha Brisbane done in November 2009. Since 2009, a search for a suitable place for the Guru's house has also started, With the Blessing of the Satguru we got successful in this work in May 2011.

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  Singh Sabha Brisbane

        101 Lemke Road,

        P O Box 424

        TAIGUM QLD 4018

  ABN 17 140 805 312

  info@singhsabhagurudwara.com

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